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  1. Internet Technology and Architecture (ITA) // EIT Digital Master School
  2. A Reference Architecture For The Internet of Things
  3. {{biblio_info.title}}
  4. Forthcoming articles

A collective research work of knowledge formalization will be required throughout the course and presented at the end of the course. Each not excused absence will reduce the final grade by three points. If you are more than 15 minutes late, you will be counted absent. After three absences, even if excused, you will have to pass a final exam. This is the basis of any personal development and is critical for developing effective interaction with others whether as a team member, or as a team leader.

This is critical given that almost everyone works as part of a team. Students will get familiar with a wide range of topics, through the application of theoretic ideas on problems of practical interest. This is a "reverse class", in which students are required to study or revise a particular topic at home, and apply what they have learned solving real world problems, including industrial applications, during numerous laboratory sessions.

Laboratory sessions are based on modern technologies such as Jupyter Notebooks. Teaching and Learning Methods : Laboratory sessions group of 2 students. This course offers a survey of several well-known attacks targeting specific weaknesses of hardware microprocessors, dedicated hardware cryptographic accelerators For each of them the conditions of success are explained and some countermeasures are proposed.

Teaching and Learning Methods : Lectures, Homework , and a case study study and present a research paper in a group of students. Course Policies : Mandatory participation, Case study optional, but recommended. The basic contention and management mechanisms are detailed. The architectures of networks and service delivery platforms are subject to an unprecedented techno-economic transformation.

This trend, often referred to as Network Softwarization, will yield significant benefits in terms of reducing expenditure and operational costs of next generation networks. Besides covering the theoretical aspects, the course will provide an overview of the enabling technologies, and how combining these concepts will allow building flexible and dynamic virtual networks tailored to services, e.

This course presents the main applications of secure communication mechanisms in the area of computer networks and distributed systems. The course covers network security approaches based on firewalls, cryptographic security protocol suites designed for the data exchange and network control components of Internet, wireless security protocols, and security solutions for mobile network architectures. This course covers the application-level protocols dedicated to IOT.

Knowing the limited capacity, in terms of battery and CPU, of the things, the classical application protocols used in the Internet like HTTP are not adequate. This course presents the recent application protocols specially developed for IOT. Deep Learning is a new approach in Machine Learning which allows to build models that have shown superior performance fora wide range of applications, in particular Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing. The objective of this course is to provide an overview of the field of Deep Learning, starting from simple Neural Network architectures and pursuing with contemporary and state of the art practices and models.

LoRa, SigFox M1 or Cat. Teaching and Learning Methods : The course is organized in 4 lectures and 3 labs. The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which the semantics of information and services on the web is defined. It derives from W3C director Sir Tim Berners-Lee's vision of the Web as a universal medium for data, information, and knowledge exchange. We will present the problems of modeling ontologies and reconciling data on the web.

Finally, we will explain how to extract knowledge from textual documents using natural language processing and information extraction technologies.

Internet Technology and Architecture (ITA) // EIT Digital Master School

Teaching and Learning Methods: Lectures and Lab sessions group of 2 students max. In the Business Simulation course, students, in groups of four to six, will manage a virtual company as an aid to learning, by doing, about the practical aspects of running a company in a dynamic international environment. The course will be provided in a compact blended learning environment.

Uniquely at Eurecom, this course will be delivered in a blended learning environment. That is, only half of the learning will take place in the classroom at fixed times each week. The other half of the course will be undertaken online at times, and places, suitable for the individual student teams, provided that the required tasks usually a decision set is completed within the defined week timeframe.

Research has shown that the best learning experience from the business simulation is over a concentrated timeframe. Therefore, this course, of the standard 42 hours effective learning time for a 5-credit program , will be completed over seven weeks elapsed time rather than the standard 14 weeks. Some students may find this helpful; freeing up time towards the end of the semester to work on projects in other courses.

A Reference Architecture For The Internet of Things

During the course, following initial briefings, student teams will each take up to 12 sets of business decisions; each decision set representing one quarter of a business year. Decisions are entered online before a predefined cutoff date and time. These decision sets drive the simulation, the results being provided online.

During the seven classroom sessions, instructors will be available, face-to-face, to answer questions and provide support. Between the classroom sessions, instructors are available online asynchronously, and, at pre-agreed times, live , as are a range of online support materials, including videos and guides. Teaching will combine classroom and video-based instruction, guidance, and support, with additional online materials and individual support helping students, at their own time and pace, to master the technical and practical aspects of the simulation.

Active participation is required from each student. The grading system is continuous see below and is on both team and individual results. On-time attendance at entire classroom sessions is mandatory and will be recorded. This will significantly increase the agricultural productivity by avoiding the inappropriate farming conditions. The applications trol and management using advanced technology of sensors, implemented by IoT can be smart health, smart farming, information and network.

The intelligent transportation can smart home, smart city, intelligent transportation, etc. It builds business models, graphs, flow- itoring, reducing environmental pollution, anti-theft system, charts etc based on the data received from Application avoiding traffic jams, reporting traffic incidents, smart bea- layer. The real success of the IoT technology also coning, minimizing arrival delays etc depends on the good business models. Based on the 8 Design of smart cities: The IoT can help to design analysis of results, this layer will help to determine the smart cities e.

The IoT can find its applications in almost every aspect of The IoT can also be used to design such scheme for wind our daily life. Below are some of the examples. The IoT is also getting increasing popularity for academia, The IoT helps to monitor their environmental performance industry as well as government.

Many international organi- and process the data to determine and pick the one that need zations are involved in the development of IoT. Eye-On-Earth platform creates an environment where water 3 Water Scarcity monitoring: The IoT can help to detect and air quality of a large number of European countries the water scarcity at different places. The networks of sensors, can be viewed, thus aiding in climate change research [8]. The Cluster of European area management, but may even be used to alert users of Research Projects on the Internet of Things CERP-IoT is a stream, for instance, if an upstream event, such as the one of their active research project.

The CERP-IoT look accidental release of sewage into the stream, might have for IoT applications in societal, industrial and environmental dangerous implications. Some other currently active European teraction with appliances, detecting emergencies, home safety FP7 research projects that focus on the development of IoT and finding things easily, home security etc.

Their aim is to allow billions of sensors to communicate over the to populate the planet with billions of small sensors aimed at wireless medium. The future IoT will cause significant increase in the Some of the key challenges are addressed in section V. Thus, green technologies need to be adopted to make the network devices as V.

The IoT can change the shape of the Internet and can offer enormous economic benefits but it also faces many key VI. Some of them are briefly described This paper introduced the emerging future form of Internet below. The IoT embeds intelligence in the sensor devices billions of objects to provide innovative services.

Simply, IoT transitions human-human Internet. Thus, an efficient naming and identity man- communication to human-human, human-device and device- agement system is required that can dynamically assign device communication. This paper described briefly the eval- and manage unique identity for such a large number of uation of Internet, proposed the generic structure for IoT, objects. The IoT services that may not be accessible by others.

The deployment could be hard and require large research efforts standardization of IoT is very important to provide better to tackle with the challenges but it can provide significant interoperability for all objects and sensor devices. Zheng, D. Simplot-Ryl, C. Bisdikian, and H. Huang and G. Fan and Y. Zhou and J. Li, Z. Huang, and X. Yu, J. Wang, and G. The IoT service determines who can see the data, October Coetzee and J. The [9] L. Tan and N. Determining factors for users in the appropriation process are their resources and personal and positional variables. The resources consist of temporal, material, mental, social and cultural resources of people, which determine the appropriation process of new technology.

In addition to the new technology itself, these resources play a crucial role in the appropriation process of the technology. The personal variables consist of characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, intelligence, personality and health of users. The positional variables consist of education, employment status, household composition and developed or developing country. From the philosophical perspective, the mediation theory is used to explain that technology mediates human actions [ 56 ].

Here, one also assumes a certain interconnectedness between technology and human. The central message from the above-mentioned theories is that appropriation ensures that the meaning of technology is not static, but dynamic, and that the user defines the meaning of technology.

Thus, both users and technology play a crucial role in the appropriation process. During the appropriation process of technology, all kinds of effects may occur that the user regards as positive or negative. Examples are all kinds of participation in society, labour-market effects and social effects [ 64 ]. These reinventions not only occur through the inter personal interactions of users with the technology, but also through mass-media messages about the innovation.

The integration of both own experiences and media messages that are connected to innovations, eventually influences the users and their experiences with the innovation [ 95 ]. Having reflected on the past and present, we now turn our attention to the future. Of course this is an area rife with speculation as nobody can predict the future reliably. The challenge of having meaningful discussion about the future of the Internet-of-Things is one of the drivers behind future-casting tools, such as Science Fiction Prototyping discussed earlier in this paper.

It is clear that, while we may not be able to predict the future with any certainty, there are some comments we can make with little fear of contradiction such as the observation that the Internet-of-Things has witnessed some extraordinary growth in recent years, a trend that is very likely to continue [ 36 ]. For example, some estimates for the future number of connected devices in are of the order 21 to 75 billion, with an associated market value of the order 60 trillion dollars.

As a consequence, there is a huge motivation for companies, researchers and citizens to seek opportunities to become involved in this rapidly growing market. The complex and fast moving dynamics of the Internet-of-Things creates difficult challenges which in turn can represent opportunities that motivate researchers and entrepreneurs alike.

For example, there are multiple network and protocol standards, a myriad of differing devices being produced by different people and organisations , an open-ended and growing numbers of applications and vast amounts of data being produced. At one extreme, the inevitable chaos of a quickly developing technology is attracting criminals who are taking advantage of poor design and organisation of some current Internet-of-Things systems to hack into devices, hijacking them for their own purposes.

To illustrate this point, saw the first major use of malware to accesses Internet-of-Things devices by using default usernames and passwords the most widely reported use being to orchestrate DoS attacks. Complexity is also an opportunity as, for example, this creates the possibility for artificial intelligence to be used to reduce the cognitive load on the user, making it easier for them to harness the potential of Internet-of-Things.

The Internet-of-Things moves data analytics on from dealing with relatively slowly evolving if large data sets, to vast volumes of data gathered from physical sensors changing in real-time, all of which pose significant challenges to researchers.


Different architectural paradigms also beckon. Currently most analytics and management software is deployed on central servers the Cloud but this has vulnerabilities a central dependency and performance limitations e. The increasingly complex interconnectivity of the Internet-of-Things can also lead to system instabilities, which researchers are struggling to understand [ ]. Thus research into Internet-of-Things architecture, Artificial Intelligence paradigms, End-User Programming, privacy and acceptance issues are likely to remain hot-topics for some time to come.

For example, earlier in this paper we described a few promising approaches for giving users more control over Internet-of-Things systems e. Thus, commercialising research work is an equally worthy avenue of research, a challenge that has been identified and taken up by business school researchers [ ]. Apart from opportunities to research underlying technologies, there are also openings to create new applications. The Internet-of-Things already plays a fundamental role in enabling the creation of so-called smart-homes which, originally, were heavily focused on care provision [ 6 ].

However the applications for smart homes are much broader than this. This is seen as an easier Internet-of-Things market to develop since saving energy is welcomed by both customers and companies. Beyond the energy market there are numerous other companies eying up areas of this emerging market e.

Philips Hue light bulbs, Amazon Alexa speech interaction etc. Clusters of smart homes, smart factories or offices, and smart cars make up what are termed smart cities which are heavily populated with Internet-of-Things devices generating numerous new opportunities for research and commerce. Robotics in various forms is another big upcoming opportunity for the Internet-of-Things with numerous companies running pre-market projects to explore, for example, the potential market for domestic robots domestic servants. This was part of a deliberate strategy to scan the horizon in search of new Internet-of-Things product opportunities based on the use of their Science-Fiction Prototyping methodology that employed story writing as a way of enabling it to communicate with its customers [ 61 ].

For example, Davies [ 37 ] explored linking objects in on-screen computer games to real objects in the local physical environment e. As was mentioned earlier, Pena-Rios [ 74 ] has explored using mixed reality ideas for creating online engineering labs and, more recently, has been working with BT to deploy similar techniques in support of their field workforce. This area is still very much in its infancy and so beckons many opportunities for researchers and companies.

Of course, many Internet-of-Things applications have the potential to generate huge volumes of data, big data. Despite the recent setbacks on the misuse of personal data, recent communications from the European Union suggest they are keen to support the commercializing of Internet-of-Things data to ignite a European data economy which, in terms of investment, lags American industry by some 10 percentage points.

The growth of big data that the Internet-of-Things promises is already putting pressure on data centres to be able to deliver the performance necessary to service the massive population of Internet-of-Things devices. As a result there is an increasing need for more complex Internet-of-Things architectures to support the new generations of applications. One example, mentioned earlier, is edge-computing, where some of the computational load for servicing Internet-of-Things devices is moved to smaller but powerful computers in the locality of the end-point devices in question, distributing loads, increasing reliability and giving better latency response while enjoying cloud security, scalability, configuration, deployment, and management.

Forthcoming articles

In the introduction we presented Science Fiction Prototyping as a means of injecting some imaginative thinking into the Internet-of-Things innovation process. A Science Fiction prototype conjectured that such Nano-metre sized network-aware devices, could be sprayed onto surfaces, or implanted into biological systems to make new types of Internet-of-Things applications [ 22 ]. While the state-of-the-art did not allow such systems to be built, a related project created a sophisticated simulation that enabled the ideas, as part of a Nano-computer paint for spraying on walls to create interactive surfaces, to be tested [ 65 ].

Since then there has been much interest in the benefits arising from the amalgamation of Smart-Dust concepts with the Internet-of-Things. Other examples include an EU project which considered the potential for injecting Nano devices into the human body for medical diagnosis and repair [ 10 ].

The technological Singularity movement have long conjectured on using such technology to augment the capability of the human brain [ 27 ], potentially leading to an expanded form of the Internet-of-Things which might include animals and people; an Internet-of-Everything! Thus, in developing the Internet-of-Things, it is important to exercise sound moral and ethical judgement, which is where a tool like Science Fiction Prototyping, and understanding user acceptance issues, can be particularly useful since it can be harnessed to reason not just about desirable futures but also dystopian futures that we would wish to avoid [ 20 ].

Clearly, while any discussion of the long-term future of the Internet-of-Things can be no more than an enjoyable speculation, we can say that, based on existing trends that the near-term Internet-of-Things market is set to grow and be a source of innovation for some time to come. In this paper we have reviewed the Internet-of-Things concept and its evolution since taking a smart device and user-centric perspective.

Using a systematic study of public literature, we presented a five-phase categorisation of the development of the Internet-of-Things from its beginnings to the present day. Four mini case studies were included to provide some practical illustrations of the issues we identified. We looked at some of the issues and ideas in the area of smart environments and user centred design and acceptance for the Internet-of-Things. As time moves forward, the pace and scale of development of the Internet-of-Things, together with the diversity of technologies, applications and contexts, will certainly be challenging, but such challenges are the food of innovation which should further drive research in this area and boost commercial opportunities.

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Types of IoT Connections

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The Internet of Things: Architecture and Protocols

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