- The public intellectual in critical marxism: from the organic intellectual to the general intellect
- The Case for Academics as Public Intellectuals
It murders to dissect They have approached the west and its problems from the perspective of modernisation theory. The […] Taoiseach, Garret FitzGerald, an economist, is a loose affiliate of this school. His proposals for so-called western development — a massive injection of capital and the institutional framework through which it would flow — remind me of a television advertisement for all-round worm drench Reviewing key influences on his own intellectual development, he highlights not his training in sociology at Indiana and Manchester universities but the formative influence of his primary school teacher, William Clune.
This decision to attach importance to the figure of Clune is clearly intentioned, and an example of the sort of cultural and critical activism which seeks to go against the grain of the hegemonic model which resists unconventional interpretations of the complex historical resonances of language. For Higgins, an appropriate paradigm of education is not one which is conceived as a series of stages of maturity, each involving the pragmatic achievement of progressively more substantial goals, but rather it is a model more akin to that practiced by Clune.
Clune, he writes:. He was a Jungian In this combination of the poetic and the social we can recognise the radical idiom of postcolonial interpretation which in the Irish context achieves its most potent expression in a critical archaeology which seeks to give voice to subaltern subjects, the fragments of whose stories have been occluded by the dominant narrative of modernisation. It is an open invitation. While we can consider Kearney as a seminal influence, it is also appropriate to recognise that, from an early stage, Higgins also championed broadly similar values.
And in many of the signal, self-consciously postcolonial interventions in Irish critical discourse we can trace a continuity with the concerns addressed by Kearney, but also by Higgins. Neither history nor literature are inert bodies of experience; nor are they disciplines that exist out there to be mastered by professionals and experts. The two terms are mediated by the critical consciousness, the mind of the individual reader and critic, whose work […] sees history and literature somehow informing each other.
So the missing middle term between history and literature is therefore the agency of criticism, or — interpretation Similarly, real agency rejects the alternative of a false resolution or reconciliation such as that proposed by the incorporation of peripheral identity into the dominant metropolitan mainstream, in other words, the elimination or conversion of its dissonant stories, or its strange and deviant myths, to the pragmatic common-sense norm. In other words, history and particularly History as a discipline, as much as an objective expression of empirically verifiable truth, or the teleological expression of modernisation, is situated , the product of complex social struggles particularly over territory.
As Said indicates of Gramsci, this involves facing in more than one direction. Ultimately, the route to overcoming this malaise is that which is necessary to overcome the legacy of a colonial history. In Causes for Concern a section on the public space, and on the importance of culture in facilitating the critical sensibilities that promote a model of active citizens rather than passive consumers, is followed by one relating Ireland to the rest of the world. The genuinely active citizen must have as his or her public space not just the local place but that of the whole of humanity.
Then, as the title indicates, he proposed that, ultimately, the future task of the Left was the development of the sort of critical consciousness we have been outlining, and the development of policies designed to shift people from their contemporary role as passive spectators so that they become reconnected and included in a vibrant democratic society. Such values are not just the stuff of any contemporary popular or populist vogue, but are the result of years of in-depth, nuanced scholarship and his attempts to engage a broad spectrum of people with the ideas such scholarship consistently proposed to him.
The debate, he says, should also be about space and time. Said, speaking to an audience in the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and invoking the example of John Henry Newman as an argument against specialisation, suggested that the model for academic freedom should be the migrant or the traveller. We should, Said feels, be free:. But, most essentially, in this joint discovery of self and Other, it is the role of the academy to transform what might be conflict, or contest, or assertion into reconciliation, mutuality, recognition and creative interaction But, above all, the traveller exchanges fixed routine for what is new, and abandons pre-determined patterns and dogmas, crossing over in diplomacy to the space of the other.
This paradigm is the cultural idiom of academic freedom but it is also the truly liberationist spirit of a republic.
Higgins, Dublin, Liberties Press, In the UK the issue has been addressed primarily by Stefan Collini. Michael D. An Irish Intellectual Tradition? The reduction of the discourse of public intellectuals to mere polarized positions is the most observable sign of a lack of respect. It serves to short-circuit and obviate subtleties of argument and render superfluous the need for evidence.
Rather, respect is granted to them through the opportunity to articulate and defend their positions in some detail or depth to a wide audience. It is further confirmed when their defense is thoughtfully received by an attentive audience. Public intellectuals are respected for the depth of their knowledge, and efforts to suppress it, such as the reduction of their knowledge to a mere position, is ultimately a sign of disrespect for them as intellectuals.
The lack of respect afforded our public intellectuals today is a major cause for concern.
The public intellectual in critical marxism: from the organic intellectual to the general intellect
The current situation can be put into better context when one recalls that the history of public intellectualism in America includes figures such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, William James, Max Weber, and John Dewey -- figures who still have a powerful presence in the world of ideas.
At present, public intellectualism in America is preoccupied more with the idea-in-itself that is being promoted than with the person who is promoting it. For much of the last century, Dewey, for example, was regarded as not just another expert commenting on the public school system in America. At the opening of the 21st century, however, the situation is much different. The final cause for discouragement regarding public intellectuals is the tug of war between academe and the public-private sector in which public intellectuals currently find themselves.
Public intellectuals play a crucial role in the circulation, production and identity of knowledge though the two worlds they inhabit -- academe and the public-private sector -- both compete for their allegiance and affiliation. The interests of these two worlds are very different, with the most obvious difference being that academe privileges highly specialized modes of discourse, whereas the public-private world favors generalized ones.
I believe that the fundamental terms of the relationship of public intellectuals to the academic and public-private sectorss must be changed. I will even go so far as to offer that we might consider replacing the phrase "public intellectual" with the arguably more apt albeit controversial one, "corporate intellectual. Even though Emerson was writing well before the rise of academe and the university in America, his thoughts on academics and public intellectuals are extremely insightful and provide a unique point of entry regarding the issues at hand.
Critical reflection on the role of public intellectuals in America is important at this particular time in our history. Recent social and political events such as the war in Iraq, the mistreatment of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Graib, and our responses to natural disasters, such as increasing global warming and Hurricane Katrina, reveal that our society seems to have lost its ability to question authority, to separate knowledge from opinion, and to discern what is valuable from what is worthless.
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- Reflections on Crisis: the role of the public intellectual;
- Of Public Intellectuals, Universities, and a Democratic Crisis.
- A book of our times in reflective mood on role of public intellectual?
- Reflections on Crisis: the role of the public intellectual | Royal Irish Academy.
Public intellectuals can potentially play a central role in directing -- or even redirecting -- the social and political agenda of the nation as well as provide the public with reliable insight. If public intellectuals are to become relevant and respected again, viz. Academe is frequently characterized as an oasis from the market-driven forces of the public-private sector.
Within the academy, ideas are said to be pursued without regard to their market value by individuals dedicated to the life of the mind. Students and teachers enjoy in academe a reprieve from the pressure to conform their practices to the requirements of "cash value" or "public sentiment.
The public-private sector, however, is associated with a different set of activities and values. Moreover, arguably, this set of activities and values is defined as the opposite of those of academe. For example, if academe is dedicated to the life of the mind, then the public-private sector is not; if academe disseminates, discovers, and debates knowledge and ideas, then the public-private sector does not; if academe is not motivated by market values, then the public-private sector is.
In sum, the public-private sector is a site where ends are pursued relative to their potential either to appease public and private sentiment or produce "cash value," whereas the academy is not.
Affiliation with the public-private sector is often akin in the academy to "selling out," namely, abandoning the pursuit of knowledge for the pursuit of market share. This perception is part of the reason that terms such as "public intellectual" and "academic" are at times used in a mutually exclusive manner: either one is a public intellectual or one is an academic.
One cannot be both. Public intellectuals promote or sell ideas whereas academics pursue or discover ideas; public intellectuals speak to and for the masses, whereas academics speak to and for academics. Moreover, public intellectuals are often distinguished by considerations of quantity, whereas academics are differentiated by considerations of quality. For public intellectuals, the more attention that their ideas or they themselves receive, the more valued they are as public intellectuals. In other words, one cannot be a valuable public intellectual without a public, and the greater the public, the greater the value that is ascribed to the public intellectual.
Academics, however, are valued differently. The key factor in judging the value of academics is quality: quality research in their discipline, quality teaching of their students, and quality service to their institution and community. While quantity can sometimes positively influence determinations of academic value, quantitative value is always tempered by considerations of quality.
Standards of academic quality are determined within the academic community and may vary from discipline to discipline. In large part, quality in academia is a relative and subjective affair, as much depends on the standards established by the community. This notion of academic quality is particularly true within the humanities, but arguably holds as well in the sciences. Quality, the relative and subjective factor at the center of determinations of academic value, is much different than the key factor used to determine the value of public intellectuals.
Issues of quantity are largely objective and empirical. As we shall see, for some, one only needs a tally-sheet and a calculator to determine the value of a public intellectual, whereas one needs very discipline-specific information to determine the value of an academic. This lack of reliance on discipline-specific information in quality judgments of public intellectuals is troubling. We are living in a time when both the meaning and function of public intellectuals are being radically reshaped.
The rise of new media and the growth of the entertainment industry have resulted in an unprecedented need for individuals to participate in it. Increasing numbers of academics are entering this growing marketplace for ideas, while at the same time the number of institutionally unaffiliated persons is decreasing.
The Case for Academics as Public Intellectuals
And while the "decline" of the public intellectual in America has been presented in numerous ways by numerous commentators, the most notorious and noteworthy example is the recent study from the legal commentator Richard Posner. In his widely debated book Public Intellectuals , Posner argues that American public intellectualism is in "decline" and presents a range of empirical evidence to support this conclusion. By a variety of methodologically questionable means, including statistics on media mentions, Internet traffic, and scholarly mentions, Posner presents a list of major public intellectuals.
In addition, Posner treats public intellectualism in America as though it were merely part of the entertainment industry -- which it very well may be -- and, as such, judged by standards more akin to the Nielson ratings than the tribunal of reason. Work on public intellectuals by cultural theorists like David Shumway, Jeffrey J. One aspect of the star system is that a small coterie of academics make the transformation from being merely the most recognizable face of the life of the mind academic stars to being quite literally part of the entertainment industry super-stars.
Helpfully, Ruane categorises three types of public intellectual: explaining complex knowledge to the general public; cross connecting academic disciplines or adding to policy; engaging in a range of issues because of their status in one. Information is also more accessible, with greater use of graphics in print, economics blogs and audio-visual props being used on TV — though there are refereeing and bias issues with the latter two, for Ruane. Interestingly, Ruane also feels that urgent, real-time commentating by academic economists needs now to be backgrounded.
This compares starkly to the reliefs and benefits for the more male-dominated sectors of society, such as farming and construction. This sequence of sole-authored chapters makes for a positively varied reading experience. However, there are numerous areas where the same information emerges, which is slightly wearying. Examples include the difficulty intellectuals face in being both specialist and lay, which risks the wrath of academic peers; the fact that universities may not be the best place to produce public intellectuals; the lack of a public sphere for debate in Ireland, but the value in blogs like Irisheconomy.
This information is crucial, which explains why so many of the authors refer to it. Dealing with this issue would have added considerably to the coherence of the book as one is left with a collection of papers masquerading as chapters. This small consideration aside, Reflections on Crisis is certainly a book for our times, one that deserves as wide an audience as possible.